Consumption of artificial sweetened beverages linked to risk of early childhood overweight

Findings in the population-based CHILD birth cohort suggest that consumption of artificially sweetened beverages during pregnancy is associated with higher infant BMI and an increased risk of infant overweight at 1 year of age. Compared with no consumption, daily consumption of artificially sweetened beverages was associated with a 0.20-unit increase in infant BMI z score and a 2-fold higher risk of infant overweight at 1 year of age. The infant birth weight remained unaffected, suggesting that consumption of artificially sweetened beverages influenced postnatal weight gain rather than fetal growth. The study is published online May 09, 2016 in JAMA Pediatrics.


ADHD treatment for young children

According to a new CDC Vital Signs report, about half of young children 2 to 5 years of age receiving care for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are not receiving psychological services, including the recommended treatment of behavior therapy. The report says that about 75% of young children being treated for ADHD received medicine, and only about half received any form of psychological services, which might have included behavior therapy. The report urges healthcare providers to refer parents of young children with ADHD for training in behavior therapy before prescribing medicine to treat the disorder. In behavior therapy, parents are trained by a therapist over the course of eight or more sessions, and they learn strategies to encourage positive behavior, discourage negative behaviors, improve communication, and strengthen their relationship with their child.


Children with Down’s syndrome prone to arthropathy

Children with Down’s syndrome should have an annual musculoskeletal examination because of their increased risk of developing arthritis, an association that is widely unrecognized. The prevalence is higher than that of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), at 8.7/1,000 compared with 1/1,000 according to a study presented at the annual meeting of the British Society for Rheumatology held in Glasgow, UK. The Down’s arthropathy group also more commonly had involvement of the small joints (88% versus 43%, P<0.01) and specifically of the proximal interphalangeal joints, which were affected in 78.6% of the Down’s arthropathy group.


Study supports 2 mg IM vitamin K as prophylactic dose to prevent vitamin K deficiency bleeding

A vitamin K prophylactic regimen of 1 mg of vitamin K orally at birth followed by a daily oral dosage of either 25 or 150 µg fails to prevent vitamin K deficiency bleeding in breastfed infants with still unrecognized biliary atresia. In the study by the Netherlands Study group of Biliary Atresia Registry (NeSBAR) reported in May 2016 issue of the journal Pediatrics, vitamin K deficiency bleeding occurred in 82% infants of the 25 µg group, in 82% of the 150 µg group, but in only 4% of the IM 2 mg group. No intracranial hemorrhage was reported in the IM 2 mg group.


Adverse reactions to antihistamines are common

Toxicity can occur with second-generation antihistamines. The main toxicity relates to skin eruptions and central nervous system problems as reported in a study published Online First 18 April 2016 in the Archives of Disease in Childhood. Skin eruptions, headache and somnolence were the most frequently reported ADRs Serious ADRs included one death (malignant neuroleptic syndrome), cardiac arrhythmia (one case) and convulsions (three cases).


Children starting day care have fewer infections after the first year

First-year daycare attendees had a higher incidence of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) during the first year and lower during the third to sixth year of age compared with nonattendees reports a study from Netherlands in the journal Pediatrics published online April 25. The daycare-associated increase in AGE incidence was most pronounced during the first 12 months after enrollment into daycare and demonstrated clear seasonality. Protection against AGE infection persists at least up to age 6 years.


Iodinated contrast media linked to hypothyroidism in children

A single-institution case-control study online March 28 in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism concluded that exposure to iodinate contrast media used in imaging studies increases the risk of incident hypothyroidism in children. These children should be monitored for iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction, particularly during the first year following exposure.


Emotional problems persist when premature children reach school age

Preterm children have higher rates of persistent and changing emotional and behavioral problems when they enter school as compared to full-term children. And, these problems are likely to persist for at least a year. Early preterm children had the highest rates of persistent (8.2%) and emerging (5.2%) problems, and moderately preterm children had the highest rates of resolving problems (8.7%) (Pediatrics, published online April 21).


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The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has released a new clinical practice guideline on brief resolved unexplained events (BRUE) in low-risk infants. BRUE refers to brief events in infants, such as when a baby stops breathing for a few seconds that are unexplained and rarely associated with underlying medical problems. The new term, BRUE, will replace “apparent life-threatening event” (ALTE).
The guidelines were published online April 25 in the journal Pediatrics and will be e published in the May 2016 Pediatrics.

The guidelines apply to well-appearing infants up to 12 months old who experience an event that lasts less than a minute and then resolves itself during which they exhibit one or more of the following symptoms: blue or pale complexion, absent or irregular breathing, marked change in muscle tone and altered level of responsiveness.


Breast milk sutra

Breast milk is liquid gold which along with fats, proteins, vitamins and minerals also supplies hormones, stem cells and immune factors that help protect babies from disease-causing organisms, prevent, treat or cure obesity and diarrhea.

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