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17th January, 2018
The epidemiology of flu outbreaks

Outbreaks of influenza or ‘flu’, as it is commonly known as, occur every year in three patterns, either as pandemics, epidemics or as sporadic cases. This epidemiologic pattern reflects the changing nature of the antigenic properties of influenza viruses, and their subsequent spread depends upon multiple factors, including transmissibility of the virus and the population susceptibility. Influenza B and C viruses mainly affect humans, whereas influenza A viruses infect a range of mammalian and avian species. Only type A and B cause human disease of any concern.

The antigenic envelope glycoproteins of the influenza A virus are capable of undergoing changes. Minor changes in the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase glycoproteins, called antigenic drift, are more common resulting in repetitive outbreaks. The major changes in the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase glycoproteins are called antigenic shifts, caused by reassortment from different influenza A subtypes, such as between animal and human subtypes of influenza virus. Antigenic shifts are associated with influenza A epidemics and pandemics; antigenic drifts cause more localized influenza A outbreaks of varying severity.... read more

Top News

WHO & UNEP team up to tackle environmental health risks

Two United Nations agencies are teaming up in a major new initiative taking on the herculean task of combating environmental health risks, which claim an estimated 12.6 million lives a year. The partnership, announced Wednesday, between the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Health Organization (WHO), includes specific action to address air pollution, climate change and antimicrobial resistance as well as improve coordination on waste and chemicals management, water quality, and food and nutrition issues.... read more

Maharashtra Govt makes it mandatory for MBBS pass outs availing govt fund to serve one year rural posting

To overcome the shortage of doctors in rural and remote areas of the state and remove dichotomy in rural posting, the Maharashtra government has made it mandatory for MBBS pass outs from private aided and unaided medical colleges availing government scholarships to serve one year rural posting, reported Laxmi Yadav in Pharmabiz. Those who are reluctant to serve the rural posting are required to return the government scholarships with interest.... read more

Practice Updates

New recommendations for screening for colorectal cancer in cystic fibrosis patients

The Cystic Fibrosis Foundation has recommended that adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) should be screened for colorectal cancer (CRC) with colonoscopy beginning at age 40 as these patients develop CRC at a younger age, with follow-up screening every five years.... read more

Study links early menarche to higher risk of heart disease

Early menarche, early menopause, earlier age at first birth, and a history of miscarriage, stillbirth or hysterectomy were each independently associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease among women in later life in a study published online first January 15,... read more

TV advts increase intake of junk food in teenagers

A report by Cancer Research UK released January 15, 2018 shows that teenagers, between the ages of 11-19 years, who watch more than three hours of commercial TV daily with TV ads for unhealthy, high calorie food are more likely to eat over 500 extra snacks like crisps,... read more

Don't hold your nose and close your mouth when you sneeze

Reporting the case of a young man who ruptured the back of his throat while holding his nose and closing the mouth to stop a forceful sneeze in the journal BMJ Case Reports, January 15, 2018, doctors have cautioned against... read more

US FDA Advisory Committee votes against Cipro dispersion for inhalation

The US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Antimicrobial Drugs Advisory Committee has voted against recommending ciprofloxacin dispersion for inhalation (Cipro DI; Linhaliq, Aradigm) for the treatment of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis in patients with chronic lung infections... read more

Severe hypoglycemia indicates high risk of incident CV events

Severe hypoglycemia is clearly indicative of declining health and is a potent marker of high absolute risk of incident cardiovascular events and mortality in adults with type 2 diabetes, as per a study published in the January 2018 issue of the journal Diabetes Care..... read more

Recent Updates

A comparison of graft and patient outcomes following kidney transplantation in hemodialysis patients.

A new study published in the Nephrology compared graft and patient outcomes between extended hour and conventional hemodialysis (HD) patients. This study compared the outcomes..... read more

Renal artery stenting for atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis in patients with coronary artery disease.

A new study published in the Journal of Clinical Hypertension evaluated the effectiveness of percutaneous renal revascularization (PRR) with stenting for the treatment.... read more

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Lifestyle Updates
Inspirational Story 1: :Anyway…
Inspirational Story 2: Believe in Yourself
Heart disease is often diagnosed late in women
Symptoms of this disease are different in women which delays diagnosis
New Delhi, 16 January 2018: A recent study has indicated that women who start menstruating before the age of 12 or earlier, or enter menopause before the age of 47 were at a 10% and 33% higher risk of heart disease and stroke, respectively. Some other factors that were found to be associated with elevated odds of heart problems in later years were miscarriage, stillbirth, undergoing a hysterectomy, and bearing children at a young age. These findings suggest that such women should be screened for heart problems.
Heart disease is the number one killer in women, causing 1 in 3 deaths each year. However, the warning signs of a heart attack differ from those in men. For example, women do not have the characteristic chest pain but may have pain in the jaw, neck or back, or they may present with symptoms like shortness of breath, cough, or nausea.
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