Early epinephrine for anaphylaxis tied to fewer overall doses

A 4-year study at a pediatric emergency department in Montreal, Canada says that although anaphylaxis accounts for an increasing percentage of all pediatric emergency department (ED) visits, early use of epinephrine before ED arrival is associated with a lower likelihood of requiring multiple doses of epinephrine in the ED (Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Published online April 20, 2016).


Bronchiolitis reanalysis says hypertonic saline does not reduce length of stay in infants

A reanalysis of two meta-analyses on the benefit of nebulized hypertonic saline (HS) for infants has shown that it does not reduce length of stay (LOS) in infants with bronchiolitis.[Source: JAMA Pediatrics18 April 2016]


Milk allergy linked to low bone density in children

According to a study published in the journal Pediatrics, children with persistent cow’s milk allergy have a lower bone mineral density (BMD) and calcium intake before puberty compared with prepubertal children with food allergies other than cow’s milk. [Source: Pediatrics 19 April 2016]


Maternal depression affects health and development of children

Although inquiring/screening about maternal depression has increased since 2004, less than half of pediatricians usually screen or inquire about maternal depression, representing a missed opportunity to identify depression and manage or refer women for treatment. Further training on the importance of mental and family health to children’s health may increase identification of maternal depression in pediatric primary care.[Source: J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2016 Feb-Mar]


Oligosaccharides from milk glycoproteins enrich infant-associated bifidobacteria

Milk, in addition to nourishing the neonate, provides a range of complex glycans which enrich milk-oriented microbiome. A recent study has shown that N-linked glycoproteins from milk serve as selective substrates for the enrichment of infant-borne bifidobacteria. The study also suggests that these may serve as novel prebiotic substrates with selective properties similar to those of human milk oligosaccharides. [Source: AEM 15 April 2016]


Drop in air pollution reduces bronchitis in kids

Studies suggest that decrease in concentrations of nitrogen dioxide; ozone, PM10, and PM2.5 were associated with statistically significant decreases in bronchitis symptoms in children with and without asthma. The study was involved 4602 children (age range, 5-18 years) in southern California. [Source: JAMA April 12, 2016]


Lung ultrasound safe for diagnosing pneumonia in children

A study conducted at the Icahn School of Medicine, Mount Sinai has shown lung ultrasound to be safer and more effective than X-ray for pneumonia diagnosis in children. The study carried out on 191 children below age 21, showed no increase in adverse events and missed no pneumonia case. [Source: Chest Journal 26 Feb 2016]


Preterm infants can be immunized safety without increased risk for respiratory decompensation

Respiratory decompensation requiring clinical intervention after immunization of preterm infants both with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia was uncommon and not significantly different between groups, says a study published online April 11 in the journal Pediatrics. The study evaluated a retrospective cohort of premature infants at <32 weeks’ gestational age cared for in a tertiary level 4 NICU and immunized during their hospital stay for respiratory decompensation within 72 hours of immunization. The authors suggest that consideration for immunization of this vulnerable population should not be delayed out of concern for clinical deterioration


Autism Awareness Day: No Change in Autism rate

According to CDC reports, autism rate was 1 in 68 children in 2012 and 2010. Research published in the Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, showed that technology helped identify children with autism from children without autism but with other developmental issues like ADHD, anxiety and intellectual disabilities. The CDC recommends that parents should track their child’s development, act quickly, and get their child screened if they have a concern. (Source: CDC)


Utility of decision rules for transcutaneous bilirubin measurements

Although all of the decision rules can be used effectively to screen newborns for jaundice, each will “miss” some infants with a total serum bilirubin (TSB) level at/above the phototherapy threshold, according to a study reported online April 6, 2016 in the journal Pediatrics. The three decision rules tested were: Transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) levels at least 75th percentile on the Bhutani TSB nomogram, TcB levels above 70% of the TSB phototherapy threshold based on the AAP practice guideline and TcB levels greater than or equal to the AAP phototherapy threshold minus 3.0 mg/dL. TcB, a less invasive measure than TSB, aims to identify newborns with significant hyperbilirubinemia during their birth hospitalization

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